Agustian, Joni and Harun@Kamaruddin, Azlina (2010) Single enantiomeric �-blockers—The existing technologies. Process Biochemistry, 45 (10). pp. 1587-1604. ISSN 1359-5113

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A number of �-blocking drugs are available in the world market, only few compounds are found as single enantiomers. The need to use the single enantiomeric �-blockers affects development of drugs and technology. Many processes have been exploited to replace the existing racemates. Two main routes are established: (1) asymmetric syntheses and (2) racemic resolutions. The syntheses give medium-high yields and excellent enantiomeric excess, but the resolutions are limited by 50% yield. Both technologies involve new techniques such as dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) and membrane-based extraction. The synthetic ways utilise various substrates and catalysts. A simultaneous formation is also afforded by these processes. They offer oriented alternatives to the single enantiomeric �-blockers. Resolutions of the racemates appear with many attractive separation methods. Direct or indirect resolutions show excellent characteristics and produce high enantiomeric excess. The existing processes operate continuously at mild operating temperatures compared to the asymmetric synthesis. In situ separation is also exploited. Development of the single enantiomeric �-blockers using the DKR based on enzymatic membrane(s) is encouraged. Integration of acetylation, racemisation and hydrolysis followed by separation of the enantiomers in the enzymatic membrane reactors could be a better option in resolution and separation of the �-blocker racemates.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Divisions: Fakultas Teknik (FT) > Prodi Teknik Kimia
Depositing User: JONI AGUST
Date Deposited: 04 Oct 2016 01:12
Last Modified: 04 Oct 2016 01:12

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