Mayasari, Diana and Silaban, Irfan (2019) Pengaruh Pajanan Organofosfat terhadap Kenaikan Tekanan Darah pada Petani. AGROMEDICINE UNILA, 6 (1). pp. 186-193. ISSN 2356-332X

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Abstract

Abstrak Pola penggunaan agrokimia, khususnya pestisida, oleh petani semakin meningkat. Petani di Indonesia cederung memakai pestisida bukan atas dasar indikasi untuk pengendalian hama, namun mereka menjalankan cara cover blanket system. Cover blanket systemyaitu metode penyemprotan pestisida tanpa memperhatikan ada atau tidaknya hama pada tanaman. Petani menjadi kelompok yang berisiko mengalami penyakit akibat kerja, karena selama bekerja petani mendapat kontak dengan pestisida. Jenis pestisida yang paling banyak digunakan adalah organofosfat. Penggunaan organofosfat yang tidak tepat, memungkinkan bahan aktifnya lebih mudah masuk ke dalam tubuh. Ketepatan waktu, dosis, jenis dan kualitas pestisida terhadap sasaran, dan cara penggunaan pestisida, juga memengaruhi toksisitas yang ditimbulkan dari pemakaian organofosfat. Organofosfat memiliki berbagai efek toksik pada tubuh, baik pajanan akut ataupun kronis. Salah satu pengaruh yang dapat ditimbulkanadalahkenaikan tekanan darah. Tekanan darah dapat meningkat akibat dampak paparan organofosfat yang mempunyai kemampuan mengganggu kerja ezim asetilkolinesterase di dalam tubuh. Asetilkolin dapat terakumulasi apabila kerja enzim Asetilkolinesterase (AChE) terhambat. Stimulasi tersebut menyebabkan terganggunya fungsi sistem simpatik dalam mengatur tekanan darah. Selain itu, paparan kronik organofosfat dapat menyebabkan mutasi berupa perubahan formasi serat kolagen, perubahan tonus otot pembuluh darah serta berkurangnya enzim Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) yang memungkinkan terjadinya hipertensi. Kata kunci:asetilkolinetrerase, elastin, hipertensi, organofosfat, kolagen, Paraoxonase-1. TheEffects of Organophosphate Exposure on Blood Pressure Increase in Farmer Abstract The pattern of using agrochemicals, especially pesticides by farmers, is often out of control. Farmers in Indonesia tend to use pesticides, not only based on the indications of pest control, but they run the method of cover blanket system. Cover blanket system is one of the spraying method that pesticides given without regard to the presence or absence of pests in plants. Most farmers are at risk of experiencing occupational diseases, because these farmers get intense contact with pesticides. The most widely used type of pesticide is organophosphate. The improper use of organophosphates allows the active ingredients enter the body more easily. Frequency, dosage, type and quality of pesticides against the target, and how to use pesticides also affect the toxicity caused by the use of organophosphates. Organophosphates have various toxic effects on the body, both acute and chronic exposure. One of the toxic effect of organophosphates is cause an increase of the blood pressure. Blood pressure can increase due to the impact of continuous exposure to organophosphate chemicals that have the ability to interfere with the work of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme in the body. Acetylcholine can accumulate if the activity of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme is inhibited. The stimulation can cause disruption of the function of the sympathetic system in regulating blood pressure. In addition, chronic exposure to organophosphates can cause mutations in the form of changes in collagen fiber formation, changes in blood vessel muscle tone and reduced enzyme Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) that allows hypertension. Keywords:acetylcholinesterase, elastin, hypertension, collagen, organophosphate, Paraoxonase-1.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
Divisions: Fakultas Kedokteran (FK) > Prodi Pendidikan Dokter
Depositing User: dr. Diana Mayasari
Date Deposited: 18 Nov 2019 07:10
Last Modified: 18 Nov 2019 07:10
URI: http://repository.lppm.unila.ac.id/id/eprint/16787

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