Advanced Materials Research Vols. 588-589 (2012) pp 1744-1747 Online available since 2012/Nov/12 at www.scientific.net © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland doi
Characterization of Cutting Temperature and Ignition Phenomena of Magnesium Chip using Infrared Imaging
S. R. Sulistiyanti1a, Yanuar Burhanudin2b, Suryadiwansa Harun2c 1The Dept.
of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lampung,
Indonesia 2The Dept. of Mechanical
Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lampung,
Indonesia Jl. Prof. Dr. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1,Bandar Lampung 35145, Indonesia firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Keywords: measurement temperature; optimum cutting; infrared imaging.
Abstract. In this paper, we report our experimentation
about measurement temperature of ignition cuts and chip phenomenon using infrared imaging methods, to model and simulate machine rotary cutting tool system. Finally this research was obtained of the optimum conditions expected of cutting magnesium at high speed and without coolant. Introduction The tendency of increasing magnesium use as well mineral oil saving measures by reducing the weight of automotive parts. Therefore, treatment and processing of magnesium into a product/component has gained attention. However, increased productivity through increased cutting speed and feed are constrained by the nature itself machining magnesium ignition is on furious (600oC). All this to control the cutting temperature and improve the productivity of machining magnesium researchers  using a liquid coolant-based mineral oil. However, the use of cooling fluids will contaminate the environment through disposal of waste. Therefore, this research has the virtue to develop a new method which cheap and environmentally friendly way to control the ignition so that productivity can be improved. The Underlying Theory High-speed machining with rotary cutting tool One method to reduce cutting temperature and to increase the productivity of machining is to use a rotating cutting tool in cutting lathe machining process . Figure 1 illustrates the principle of this machining process. As shown in the figure, in this cutting method, with a rotating cutting tool the cutting blade (cutting edge) will be cooled during the period without the deduction (non-cutting period) in a round chisel cut. It is expected that the temperature of cutting tool will cut down compared to a conventional lathe machining processes (cutting chisel silent). It is also hoped that the machining process with a rotating cutting tool can be used for cutting high speed
(high speed cutting)
material Magnesium (Magnesium Alloy)
difficult to cut
such as nickel alloys (nickel alloy), and Titanium (Titanium Alloy). Fig 1 Illustration of the process machining lathe with rotating cutting tools All rights reserved. No part of contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of TTP, www.ttp.net. (ID: 184.108.40.206-21/11/12,02:33:27) Advanced Materials Research Vols. 588-589 1745 Cutting temperatures in machining processes with a rotating cutting tool The heat generated by deformation during the machining process furious chisel spinning lathe with potentially generated from four heat source. The heat source consists of three zones of deformation close to the blade of a tool cutting edge as shown in Figure 2, which is usually referred to each of the main deformation zone (primary), second (secondary), and third (tertiary). In addition, another source of heat is due to heat accumulation in the cutting edge tool due to the rapid cooling period. In the machining lathe with rotating cutting tool, a period non-cutting period becomes shorter with increasing speed rotary cutting tool, this means that a short cooling period chisel. Therefore at a certain speed limit, the temperature at the end of the chisel blade cooling period has not been cold enough when it went back into the cutting area so that the chisel blade temperature continues to rise due to heat accumulation. Tool Cutting Chip 2 edge Cutting 1 period Cduirtteicntigon iece 3 W o rkp
Heat sources: 1: Primary deformation zone (work plastic deformation) 2: Secondary deformation zone (friction energy between the chip and tool) 3: Tertiary deformation zone (friction energy between the tool and workpiece)
Heat flow along machining lathe process using rotary cutting tool  Infrared Imaging Equipment used for the analysis of infrared imaging in general consists of two forms. Radiometry equipment first form is used for temperature measurement precision, and that the two so-called monitoring equipment, which is not designed for quantitative measurements but only for qualitative comparison. Monitoring only states that an object is warmer than the others, while radiometry states that an object (for example) 25.4 ? C warmer than the other with an accuracy of 2%. The response is a standard video camera for visible light radiation from the visible object, while a special thermography unit response to infrared radiation from the object being observed. Therefore, the object was captured through the viewfinder is displayed in false colors to bring the temperature information.
Temperature is the measure of every object’s thermal energy. The temperature measurement methods for objects are based on some temperature scales. Any object heat measurement is based on the thermal energy transferred from the object to the sensor, directly or indirectly via the infrared emission which is captured from a distance by special sensors. The data received from a non- contact temperature measurement appear as an image which represents the temperature distribution over the monitored object
[3, 4, 5].
Naturally, infrared emission is related to the radiated heat transfer, which as an electromagnetic wave having wavelengths between the visible light and the microwave. Therefore, if we replace the thermal wave blocking hot mirror with a visual blocking filter, we expect to see the differences in the histogram patterns of the R, G, and B data which bear the information of the infrared image captured
We also foresee high random noises due to low sensitivity of the RGB sensors in the IR range
. 1746 Advances in Mechanics Engineering The Result of The Research Colormapping of cutting tool and chip temperature conducted from the image that captured using infrared camera. For thermal image processing, the RGB image is converted into gray level image. Conversion to gray level intended to be seen the intensity level of the object based on the temperature. After a gray level image and look difference in the intensity, the next step is pseudocoloring. Pseudocoloring process aims to provide a color temperature of the object. Table 1 shows temperature image on the cutting tool and workpiece with an infrared camera. By using a camera filter, it will be easier to distinguish objects that are rotating to dwelling. Color of the object becomes is more vague. With a faint object color image of the map the temperature of the object to look more spacious. Then we could see from these images is the temperature in the cutting tool-workpiece color becomes flushed as indicated by the dashed line circle in Table 1. Means the area is a concentration increase in temperature. Table 1 Image cutting temperature and chip captured by infrared camera with vary cutting condition
Cutting condition v=
m/min, f=0,05 mm/rev, d=0,
Precutting Initial machining Medium machining Final machining v=270 m/min,
25 mm From Table 1 it appears even more increasing temperature of thermal image based on increasing feed motion and depth of cut. Conclusion a. Infrared imaging can capture temperature image of machining magnesium, in spite of the temperature of infrared image must be converted by calibrated thermocouple temperature. b. The increasing of the machining temperature due to
cutting speed, feed and depth of cut
seen from the image color change. Suggestion This
research could be continuing with further research to get
the model and simulation results of machining using rotary cutting tool system. Acknowledgements Thanks to DP2M, Directorate of Higher Education, Ministry of Education and Culture, Republic Indonesia for providing financial support through Competitive Grant (Hibah Bersaing), Contract Number 109/UN26/8/KU/2011, April 20, 2011. Advanced Materials Research Vols. 588-589 1747 References  K. Tonnesen, N. Tomac dan F.O. Rasch. 1992. Machining magnesium alloys with use of oil- water emulsions. 8th Int. Colloquium, Tribology 2000.  S. Harun, 2009, Study on Turning with Actively Driven Rotary Tool, Doctoral Dissertation, Kobe University.  Barron, W.R., 2000, “Principles of Infrared Thermometry. Williamson Corporation”.  Christiansen, J., and Gerow G., 1990, “Thermography”, Williams and Wilkins. Baltimore.  S. Ratna Sulistiyanti, F.X. Arinto Setyawan, and Adhi Susanto, “Histogram Characterizations of Infrared Images Captured by a Modified Digital Camera”, International Journal of Electronic Engineering Research (IJEER), Research India Publications (RIP), Vol. 1, No. 4, 2009, pp. 329-336, ISSN 0975 – 6450.  Orlove, G. P.E., 2001, How to Capture a Good Thermogram, InfraMation, Volume 2, Issue 8, August, U.S.A.  Pavelka, M., Janotková, E., Štetina, J. 2001, “Visualization and Optics Measurement Methods”, VUT Brno. Advances in Mechanics Engineering 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.588-589 Characterization of Cutting Temperature and Ignition Phenomena of Magnesium Chip Using Infrared Imaging 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.588-589.1744